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Friday, February 09, 2007

February 9, 1961: Kennedy Calls for School Integration, Supports NATO, Awaits Data on 'Missile Gap' and Confers on Laos; Brit Wants Red China in UN

"President Kennedy said today that both the Constitution and public opinion demanded the admission of children to public schools 'regardless of their race,'" the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"President Kennedy pledged the United States today to unstinting and expanding support of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization," the New York Times reports.

"The Administration has come to no conclusion on the 'missile gap,' President Kennedy said today," the New York Times reports.

"Britain's Foreign Secretary declared today that the facts of international life required Communist China's entry into the United Nations," the Times reports.

"Possible steps to meet the crisis in Laos were studied today at a two-hour conference of President Kennedy and his top advisers," the Times reports.

February 8, 1961: White House Backs Missile Gap, Soviet Spy in London, $1 Minimum Wage May Get Boost

"The White House branded as inaccurate today reports that the Kennedy Administration had tentatively concluded that there was no 'missile gap' favoring the Soviet Union," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"Britain's Attorney General charged today that the Soviet spy system had sent secrets of anti-submarine devices from a bungalow in a suburb of London to Moscow," the New York Times reports.

"President Kennedy called on Congress today for prompt action to increase the national minimum wage from $1 to $1.25 an hour and to extend the protection to 4,300,000 workers," the Times reports.

February 7, 1961: No Missile Gap, US To Help Latin American Nations, Safe Cigarettes Proposed

"Studies made by the Kennedy Administration since Inauguration Day show tentatively that no 'missile gap' exists in favor of the Soviet Union," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"The conclusion appeared to back the views of former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who told Congress last month that the missile gap 'shows every sign' of being a fiction."

"Secretary of State Dean Rusk said today that the United States was ready to cooperate with other American states in ending tyranny in the hemisphere, whether that tyranny is of the Left or Right," the Times reports.

"A new theory on how cigarette smoking may be associated with lung cancer has been proposed by a General Electric Research Laboratory physicist. According to an article in the Jan. 21 issue of Nature, a British scientific journal, the glowing tip of a cigarette generates a cloud of electrically charged particles. The particles, when inhaled, may be the materials that change normal tissues to cancerous tissues. If this is true, it was suggested by Dr. Kenneth H. Kingdon, the author, the effect could be 'completely suppressed' by smoking cigarettes that were enclosed in a metallic screen," the New York Times reports.

February 6, 1961: Rioting in Angola, Cuba Controls Water for US Base, No 'Super-Cabinet' for White House

"Rioting broke out today in Luanda, capital of Angola, and four persons were killed and seven wounded, the Portuguese press agency Lusitania reported," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"The Cuban Government seized yesterday the aqueduct that supplies water to the United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay. So far the water supply is said to be normal," the Times reports.

"The President needs more help formulating security policy, a Senate sub-ccommittee said today. But he will not get it by creating 'super-Cabinet' positions in the White House, the Senators said," the Times reports.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007

February 5, 1961: Soviets Put 'Huge Earth Satellite' Into Orbit, Warn US

February 5, 1961: Soviets Put 'Huge Earth Satellite' Into Orbit, Warn US

"The Soviet Union has accepted the United States request for a six-week postponement
"The Soviet Union announced today it had put into orbit a huge earth satellite weighing more than seven tons. An 'improved, multi-stage rocket' hurled the satellite into space, the announcement said. There was no indication that anything living was aboard the satellite, the heaviest object man has ever put into orbit," the Times reports.

"The Soviet Union warned President Kennedy today that he had taken the first steps toward an expansion of the arms race," the Times reports.

"In an abrupt departure from the circumspect attitude heretofore maintained publicly toward the Kennedy Administration, Moscow complained that the United States President had evoked 'irksome echoes of the cold war' in his State of the Union Message."

"American auto manufacturers are getting ready to offer the public new economy cars for 1962 with more zip, greater comfort and higher styling than the current crop of compacts," the Times reports.

February 4, 1961: Kennedy Confers on Laos, Wants 'Federalized' Laos; Ted Kennedy Launches Career

"President Kennedy received a first-hand report today on the situation in Laos from Ambassador Winthrop G. Brown," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"The Ambassador was called to Washington from his post in Vientiane to participate in a comprehensive high-level review of major problems facing the United States in Asia," the paper reports.

"The Kennedy Administration is convinced that a new 'federalized' government in the Congo, embracing the leaders of all the factions, offers the only hope of preventing that nation from sliding from chaos into civil war," the Times reports.

"The youngest of the Kennedy brothers, Edward M. (Ted) Kennedy, is expected to launch his own political career Monday as an assistant district attorney here [Boston]," the Times reports. "But everyone concerned, including the 28-year-old Ted, as he is best known, is keeping official silence."

February 3, 1961: Pentagon Prepares to Meet Limited-War Scenarios

"The Pentagon has placed orders for fifty-three military cargo and troop transport planes for a speedy build-up of the long-range airlift. The purpose is to give the United States forces mobility to meet limited-war situations anywhere in the world," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

February 2, 1961: Kennedy Agrees to 1964 Debate, Hammarskjold Wants New Powers, Minuteman 'Spectacular Success'

"President Kennedy declared today his willingness to engage in a televised debate with a contender for his office in 1964," the New York Times reported on this day in 1961.

"President Kennedy said today that the United States' position in critical world trouble spots 'is less satisfactory than it was last fall," the Times reported today.

United Nations "Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold asked the Security Council today to widen his powers in the Congo so that he might stop factional fighting among politically motivated groups of the Congolese Army," the Times reports.

"CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla., Feb. 1 -- The three-stage Minuteman, intended to become the Air Force's No. 1 weapon, was fired for the first time here today and scored a spectacular success. The test shot of the intercontinental ballistic missile was probably the most ambitious in the nation's missile program."

"A gap in the nation's satellite-detection fence will be plugged this year by the construction of one of the world's largest radio transmitters," the Times reports.

February 1, 1961: Chimp and Spy Satellite in Space

"CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla., Jan. 31 -- A male chimpanzee nicknamed "Ham" was rocketed 420 miles over the Caribbean today in a test of the Mercury capsule that is scheduled to carry a human astronaut into orbit," the New York Times reported on this day in 1961. "The thirty-seven pound ape was in good condition when a helicopter pulled the capsule from the water almost three hours after the launching."

"POINT ARGUELLO, Calif., Jan 31 -- The United States fired a Samos reconnaissance satellite into polar orbit today. The vehicle, an experimental version called Samos II, is designed to perform photographic missions once done by U-2 aircraft," the New York Times reported today. "Samos II is not a full-fledged substitute for the U-2, but within two years the United States plans to have a network of such satellites photographing parts of the globe."

Saturday, February 03, 2007

January 31, 1961: Kennedy Wants More for Defense, Computers 'Come of Age'

"President Kennedy challenged Congress and the nation today to face up to grave perils abroad and a worsening economic recession at home. In his first State of the Union Message, given before a joint session of Congress, he called for executive and legislative actions to strengthen the national defenses to avert big and little wars and to spur the lagging economy," the New York Times reported on this day in 1961.

"President Kennedy's State of the Union Message today pictured the problems of the United States and the world as much more ominous and urgent than did former President Dwight D. Eisenhower's message to Congress eighteen days ago," the Times reports in another story.

"Mr. Eisenhower said grave problems lay ahead and there was no room for complacency. But the tenor of his message was that he was leaving the country in sound shape. He said: 'We have carried America to unprecedented heights.'

"But Mr. Kennedy said the American economy was in trouble and needed bolstering immediately. As for the Communist threat, he said, there will be worse news before there is better news, the tide is running now against this country and the free world, 'but turn it we must.' He said he spoke in an 'hour of national peril and national opportunity.'"

In another story, the Times reports, "Digital computers, the so-called electronic brains, have 'come of age' in masterminding industrial production processes, according to a report given yesterday at the winter meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Last year saw a rapid expansion of the use of digital computers in industrial process control, Gerhard L. Hollander said in giving a report on '1960 Computer Progress' compiled by a unit of the institute."

January 30, 1961: Congo Policy Examined, JFK Urged to Cut Funds for Schools That Discriminate

"President Kennedy has ordered the State Department to re-examine United States policies in the Congo and to recommend changes," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961

"A week-long pursuit of the rebel-held Portuguese liner Santa Maria will come to a conclusion later today when a United States admiral boards her near this port to negotiate the removal of the more than 560 passengers," the Times reports.

"Ruanda, northern half of the territory of Ruanda-Urundi, which Belgium operates as a United Nations Trusteeship, has declared itself an independent republic," the Times reports.

"The Southern Regional Council has urged President Kennedy to adopt a sweeping program of executive action in the civil-rights field," the Times reports.

"Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr. demanded last night that his long-pending proposal to bar Federal funds to schools discriminating against Negroes be adopted now either through legislation or 'Executive order of the White House,'" the Times reports.

January 29, 1961: Communes in China, Peace Corps Tested, Oval Office Fix-up and Sit-ins Spread

"Communist China has substantially modified its system of 'peoples' communes' and slowed down its 'great leap forward' in industry in the wake of severe agricultural reverses last year," the New York Times reports on this day in 1961.

"The Government announced today it planned to send 150 young teachers to Africa this year. The plan is regarded as an experiment to test the practicality of the Administration's proposed 'peace corps' program. This program would send young Americans, primarily teachers and technicians, into under-developed countries to help them attack their most pressing economic, educational and health problems," the New York Times reports.

"White House maintenance crews moved into President Kennedy's Executive Office today for a quick weekend painting and renovation job. When it is reassembled next week, the oval=shaped office will resemble more of a New England sitting room, a warmer and more hospitable atmosphere than the austere formality of the office as it was furnished previously," the New York Times reports.

"The Negro lunch-counter demonstrations that began a year ago next Wednesday have grown into a national protest movement against many forms of discrimination. The sit-ins continue today in cities like Atlanta, where merchants have refused to desegregate eating facilities. But the lowering of racial barriers at lunch counters in more than 125 Southern communities has led the students and their adult supporters to turn to other fields of protest," the Times reports.

Tuesday, January 30, 2007

January 28, 1961: Navy to Free Ship Captives, Kennedy Tones Down Military's Rhetoric

"The United States Navy has apparently persuaded the captors of the Portuguese liner Santa Maria to release the 560 passengers on this side of the Atlantic, probably at a South American port," the New York Times reported today.

"The Kennedy Administration indicated today that it was not irrevocably opposed to summit meetings," the Times reported today.

"Two United States Air Force officers, held prisoner without trial by the Soviet Union for nearly seven months, came home today and were greeted by President Kennedy."

"The Kennedy Administration has ordered stiff controls on 'tough' policy speeches or other 'inadvisable' statements by generals and admirals. The first to be affected is Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations," the New York Times reported today.

January 27, 1961: Downed Airmen to be Welcomed, Hammarskjold Warning on Congo

"President Kennedy will welcome the two American airmen just released from a Soviet prison when they return to the United States tomorrow," the New York Times reported today.

"[U.N.] Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold told the Security Council today that it might be necessary to remove the United Nations force from the Congo because of the withdrawal of some Asian and African military contingents," the Times reported today.

January 26, 1961: Moscow Releases US Fliers, Captured Ship Found

"President Kennedy announced tonight that the Soviet Union had released two United States airmen shot down in an RB-47 reconnaissance plane over the Barents Sea and held prisoner since July 1," the New York Times reported today.

"The captured Portuguese passenger liner Santa Maria was found far out in the Atlantic yesterday by a United States Navy patrol plane. Her captors told the Navy pilot by radio that she was bound for the Portuguese West African colony of Angola," the Times reports.

January 25, 1961: Search for Portuguese Ship Continues, Woman is White House Doc

"An intense search by sea and air continued early today along the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies for the seized Portuguese liner Santa Maria. The United States and British vessels and planes engaged had been concentrating their search along the Windward Islands above and below St. Lucia, where the Santa Maria last was sighted at 10 A.M. Monday," the New York Times reported today.

"President Picks Woman Doctor, First to Serve the White House," according to a front page headline in today's New York Times.

January 24, 1961: Portuguese Ship Siezed

"A group of passengers seized control of a large Portuguese cruise ship in a gun and grenade battle in the Caribbean yesterday morning," The New York Times reported today. "Responding to pleas from the Protuguese Government, United States and British warships immediately began a search for the captured vessel. Led allegedly by a prominent political foe of Portugal's Premier Antonio de Oliverio Salazar, the band of conspirators among the ship's 600 passengers was said to have taken command of the ship in a battle in which one officer was killed and several wounded. There are 300 in the crew."

"A 5-4 majority of the Supreme Court upheld today the constitutionality of state and local movie censorship. The court held that cities and states may require a censor's permit before a film may be shown," the New York Times reported today.

January 23, 1961: Arms Supplies in Congo, Prominent Puerto Rican

From the Congo: "Six trucks with arms were reliably reported today to have arrived ar Aro, a town close to the Congo's frontier with the Sudan. The convoy is considered here to be the first hard evidence of surface supplies from outside for the forces supporting Patrice Lumumba, imprisoned former Premier," the New York Times reported today.

"KENNEDY MAY OFFER JOB TO PUERTO RICAN," says a headline in today's edition on the NY Times.

Wednesday, January 24, 2007

January 22, 1960: President Said to be 'Busy'

The sub-head on the lead story in today's New York Times is "PRESIDENT IS BUSY"

The lede is: "President Kennedy and his new Administration went to work today."

In other news, "The Chinese Communist party today declared the United States 'the main enemy of the peoples of the world.' At the same time it reaffirmed its belief that a world war could be avoided."

"Mrs. John F. Kennedy disclosed today her plans for redecorating the White House. She said she planned to have the walls of the Presidential apartment done in pastel tones. She also is selecting draperies -- probably gay English and French chintzes -- and rugs.

January 21, 1962: Kennedy Sworn In

The banner headline in today's New York Times:


The lead story begins: "John Fitzgerald Kennedy assumed the Presidency today with a call for 'a grand and global alliance' to combat tyranny, poverty, disease and war.

"In his Inaugural Address, he served notice on the world that the United States was ready to 'pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty."

In another front-page story it is reported from Havana that "Premier Fidel Castro said tonight that the Cuban Government would 'begin anew' in its relations with the United States

"The Premier stressed, however, that Cuba would hold the United States responsible for improving relations between the countries."

Monday, January 22, 2007

January 20, 1961: Castro 'Hate Campaign,' Kennedy Official Opposes Red China in UN

"Premier Fidel Castro's Government stepped up its hate campaign against 'United States imperialism' today," the New York Times reports.

"As the United States prepared to inaugurate a new President, the Castro regime announced the arrest of six more 'Yankee invaders' and promulgated a new series of anti-United States decrees."

"Chester Bowles, President-elect John F. Kennedy's choice for Under Secretary of State, opposed vigorously today formal recognition of Communist China or its entry into the United Nations," the Times reports.

"The Government authorized the American Telephone and Telegraph Company today to establish the first space communications link between the United States and Europe on an experimental basis," the Times reports.

"The action by the Federal Communications Commission clears the way for the company to launch a series of experimental communications satellites capable of relaying telephone calls, television programs and other messages across the Atlantic."

Sunday, January 21, 2007

January 19, 1961: SAC Bombers Fly Around-The-Clock

"The Strategic Air Command began flying some of its heavy bombers on an around-the-clock basis today in the second stage of a plan to make possible as airborne alert. In such an alert, a certain number of nuclear-armed bombers wold be constantly in the air, ready to retaliate in the event of an attack," the New York Times reports. "Heretofore, the Strategic Air Command headquarters at Offut Air Base, near Omaaha, Beb., has been conducting 'feasibility studies' at various bases.... President Eisenhower referred to the plan in his Budget Message, in which he stressed the threat of a ballistic missile attack."

"Gov. S. Ernest Vandiver urged tonight a retreat from Georgia's policy of massive resistance to public school desegregation rulings of the Federal courts. The Governor asked the Legislature to adopt a package plan that would allow communities to decide whether to close their schools or obey the courts," the New York Times reports.

"Adlai E. Stevenson told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee today that the United States would have to face the possibility of Communist China's admission into the United Nations. He denied that he ehad ever advocated Peiping's entrance into the international body, but he said that it might be 'impossible to prevent," the New York Times reports.

January 17: US Restricts Travel To Cuba, Soviets Warn US is Broadening Conflict in Laos

"The United States announced today limitations on the travel of Americans to Cuba," the New York Times reported on this day in 1960. "The State Department said that United States citizens desiring to travel to Cuba must until further notice, obtain passports 'specifically endorsed by the Department of State for such travel.'"

"The Soviet Union told the United States today that it was risking a broadening of the conflict in Laos by bolstering the Government's forces with military aircraft. The warning was contained in a protest against the United States' transfer of four AT6 military training planes to the Vietiane Government," the Times reports.

"The Algerian nationalist Provisional Government announced today its readiness 'to begin negotiations with the French Government on conditions of a free consultation of the Algerian people.' 'Free consultation' was taken to mean a referendum to determine Algeria's political future," the Times reports.

"Two Negroes attended classes without incident today at the University of Georgia. Their re-entry marked the second day of desegregation in the state's public education system," the Times reports.

"The Eisenhower Administration has authorized the Navy to install Polaris ballistic missiles aboard the nuclear-powered cruiser Long Beach. This would be the first installation of the Navy's prize nuclear weapon aboard a surface warship," the Times reports. "Informants say the Long Beach will carry eight Polarises, compared with normal complements of sixteen on submarines, for which the weapon was originally designed.

January 18, 1961: Eisenhower Farewell Warning, US 'Uneasy' Over Congo, Laos Wants French Out

"President Eisenhower cautioned the nation in a farewell address from the White House tonight to be vigilant against dangers to its liberties implicit in a vast military establishment and a permanent armaments industry unparalleled in peacetime," the New York Times reports.

"The United States is becoming increasingly uneasy over the trend in the Congo and the performance of the United Nations there," the Times reports. "It seems certain that the Kennedy Administration which assumes its responsibilities Friday, will be told by its political and military advisers that it must act quickly to redress a bad situation."

"The Laotian Government of Premier Boun Oum has demanded that some French advisers be withdrawn from the country," the Times reports. ... "The Laotian-French dispute has complicated the already complex situation in Laos and has contributed to the inability of the Allied powers to arrive at a unified stand, diplomats acknowledge. ... withdrawal of the French would imperil the existence of the small United States Military Advisory Group in Laos. This group, it was said, is in Laos only uner agreement with the French, ostensibly to instruct the Laotian Army in the use of arms and equipment supplied by the United States."

Saturday, January 20, 2007

January 16, 1961: Recognition of Red China Urged

A group of prominent scientists, business men, educators and technicians agreed here [Harriman, N.Y.] today that it was in the interests of world peace that Communist China be drawn closer into the international community of nations," the New York Times reported today.

"The group also agreed such a move should lead to diplomatic recognition of Communist China by the United States and other nations and the assumption of full participation and responsibilities by Communist China in the United Nations."

In companion story today the Times reports, "W. Averell Harriman, designated as ambassador-at-large by President-elect John F. Kennedy, questioned whether Communist China wanted to be recognized by the United States. The former Governor and Ambassador to the Soviet Union told a panel on a taped interview over radio station WOR that nevertheless, 'sooner or later the majority of the U.N. members are going to vote to admit Red China.' ... Mr. Harriman said that several times he had attempted to gain entry into Red China but had been turned down."

Thursday, January 18, 2007

January 15, 1961: Catholic Church in Cuba Fights Communism

The Roman Catholic Church in Cuba has called upon all Christians in the country to form a united front in fighting communism," the New York Times reports today.

"President-elect John F. Kennedy is considering a lengthy postponement of the nuclear weapons test negotiations with the Soviet Union. They are due to be resumed in Geneva Feb. 7," the Times reports.

"President-elect John F. Kennedy was briefed today by Vice President-elect Lyndon B. Johnson on a missile believed to have been shot into the Pacific by the Soviet Union last night," the Times reports.

January 14, 1961: Negro Student Ordered Re-admitted in Georgia

"Federal District Judge William A. Bootle directed University of Georgia officials today to reinstate the institution's first Negro students," the New York Times reported today.

"Europeans and Congolese opposed to Patrice Lumumba, the deposed Premier [in the Congo] fled in near panic today following rumors that he had been freed from imprisonment," the Times reported.

"A mood of depression and insecurity is becoming increasingly evident among the European settlers in Algeria. Muslim and small businesses are showing the most pronounced signs of the uncertainty that has overtaken the European community since the dramatic days of President de Gaulle's visit to Algeria last month and the decisive support given him by continental France in a referendum on the future of the strife-torn territory," the Times reports.

"Exile sources [in Miami] said today that military resistance to Premier Fidel Castro inside Cuba was growing rapidly," the Times reports.

Tuesday, January 16, 2007

January 13, 1961: US Planes Used in Laos Fighting, TV Network Pulls Kennedy Comedy Sketch

"Planes transferred by the United States to Laos and flown by Laotians have strafed and fired rockets at rebel forces the last two days," the New York Times reports today. "The planes, four T-6s, were given under the United States military assistance program, ostensibly for observation. They have concentrated their attacks against the Left-Wing troops of Capt. Kong Le and pro-Communist Pathet Lao guerrillas in the Vicinity of Vang Vieng, sixty-five miles north of here [Vientiane]on the road to Luang Prabang."

"An eight-minute comedy sketch about President-elect John F. Kennedy and his wife, which as to be televised on 'The Art Carney Show,' has been deleted by order of the National Broadcasting Company," The New York Times reported on this day in 1960.

"Mr. Carney and Lee Remick had been scheduled to portray Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy. The setting for the sketch would have been the White House after the inauguration. ... In confirming that N.B.C. had deleted the sketch, a spokesman for the company said: 'We have never shied away from spoofing political figures but we thought it would have been improper to have performers actually portraying the President and his wife. Our decision was based on a matter of good taste.'"

January 12, 1961: A Hat Makes the Man

"You look more of a man with a hat on, and the men who run things have a deeply ingrained executive habit of reserving responsible jobs for those young men who look mature enough to handle them. They may be right, or they may be wrong, but there's no denying that they're in charge. So it pays to humor them. Most business executives we've talked to prefer to hire men who wear hats.

"A little friendly advice to young men in a hurry, published in the selfish interests of the hat industry by the Hat Corporation of America, 530 Fifth Avenue, New York 36, New York."

January 11, 1961: US Lags in Space, Soviets Don't Want War in Laos, Negroes Suspended For Their Safety

A task force today warned President-elect Kennedy that the United States was behind the Soviets missile development and outer-space exploration and said it was "very unlikely that we shall be the first in placing a man into orbit around the earth."

The Soviet Union has indicated to U.S. officials that it does not want to go to war with the U.S. over Laos.

Hundreds of students rioted this evening at the University of Georgia. university officials suspended the two Negro students who were targets of the demonstration for their safety until "it is safe and practical for them to return."

James Reston in his column today called President-elect Kennedy's plans to hold live television news conferences "the goofiest idea since the hula hoop."

January 10, 1961: Business Automates

"The country's retail stores are going in more and more for automatic handling of their work, from the receiving and selling of merchandise to the handling of billings and payments, along with salaries, payments to vendors and other disbursements," the New York Times reports on this day in 1960.

Thursday, January 11, 2007

January 9, 1961: Computers Gain

"Electronics -- virtually untouched by the general business recession last year -- was fifth among the nation's industries. ... 'Most people -- even business men -- do not realize that the electronics industry is the nation's fifth-largest. It could become first in size in the next ten years,'" Commerce Secretary Frederick H. Mueller told a banging group, according to a report in today's edition on the New York Times.

According to another story in today's paper, "Computers and their related electronic data-processing devices became the United States' newest billion-dollar industry last year. ... Computers calcuclate the exact launching time for missiles and space satellites, hastened the automation of factories as well as offices and became standard equipment for tabulating ballots in national and other elections. ... Still on the drawing board at the end of last year were new computer systems that eventually will go into the home for the first time. These systems will enable a housewife to cook a meal, make beds and open or close windows by pushing a few buttons."

In a story from Concord, Mass.: "The application of electronics to plant cafeterias has been put in operation by the Raytheon Company at Nuclear Metals, Inc., in this town. Meals prepared by an outside commissary, frozen and served refrigerated, are re-heated by plant workers in Radarange microwave ovens in sixty seconds. ... These microwave components operate at 2,450 megacycles -- about 5,000 times higher than radio broadcasting frequencies. The energy is converted into heat when it is absorbed by food. Radaranges already are in operation in a number of restaurants."

January 8, 1961: French Voters Endorse Algerian Independence

In France, voters overwhelmingly approved a referendum endorsing President de Gaulle's Algeria policy that would give the country provisional autonomy pending ultimate self determination. In Algeria as many as 40 percent of Moslem voters abstained from the vote, casting doubt on the president's mandate in Algeria.

Tensions ran high over the weekend as the country prepared for a predicted invasion by the United States.

January 7, 1961: Cuba Says it Seized US Airdrops to Anti-Castro Forces

Cuba seized two airdrops of munitions for rebels, according to reports today in Havana. The airdrops, one by an American plane, were intended for rebel forces. One of the airdrops was near Trinidad. It contained 61 rifles, three bazookas, two mortars, six machine guns and ammunition. [Trinidad is the where the CIA plans to land the rebels it is training in Guatemala, who are to meet up with opposition forces on the island.]

The US today urged other countries to join its bid to "support and maintain the independence of Laos through whatever measures seem most promising."

Thermostats are now used in 24 million US homes to control heat, according to a report.

Under the headline, "Large-Scale Suburban Development Transforms an Entire Area," The New York Times reports, "In the wake of widespread residential development it is not unusual for a small community to find itself lifted from generations of quiet vegetation almost overnight, as new commercial enterprises spring up along the highways, as industrial plants are lured by a growing labor poll and added utilities and as municipal services are increased to meet the rising need for them."

Tuesday, January 09, 2007

January 6, 1961: Nixon Farewell

In Congress, Vice President Nixon declared John F. Kennedy the next president and made this statement:

"In our campaigns, no matter how hard fought they may be, no matter how close the election may turn out to be, those who lose accept the verdict, and support those who win. And I would like to say that, having served now in government for fourteen years, a period which began in the House just fourteen years ago, almost to the day, which continued with two years in the Senate and eight years as Vice President, as I complete that fourteen-year period it is indeed a very great honor to me to extend to my colleagues in the House and Senate on both sides of the aisle who have been elected; to extend to John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson, who have been elected President and Vice President of the United States, my heartfelt best wishes, and to extend you those best wishes as all of you work in a cause that is bigger than any man's ambition, greater than any party. It is the cause of freedom, of justice, and peace for all mankind. It is in that spirit that I now declare that John F. Kennedy has been elected President of the United States and Lyndon B. Johnson Vice President of the United States."

January 5, 1961: US Breaks Relations with Cuba

President Eisenhower, in the waning days of his administrations, broke US diplomatic relations with Cuba. The president said Fidel Castro's behavior had "reached the limit" of what "The United States in self-respect can endure." James Reston wrote that Eisenhower "told off his tormentors and slammed the door on his way out. It was a grand exit which made the pictures dance on the wall and rattled old Fidel's back teeth, and this country obviously loved it."

January 4, 1961: State Department Details Soviet Intervention in Laos, Sulzberger Analyzes Split Response

The State Department had detailed the extent of Soviet aid to rebels in Laos in a new report. Between Dec. 15 and Jan. 2 there were as many as 21 flights a day by the Soviets and North Vietnam over Loas, the report said.

In his column in the New York Times on this day in 1961, C.L. Sulzberger writes: "The real crisis exposed by the Laotian civil war is a crisis in Allied relationships. ONce again we are faced with the uncomfortable fact that Washington, London and Paris have never agreed on a common oriental diplomatic front.

"The Big Three, who dominate SEATO, are in thorough discord on Laos today ... Today ... Britain and France favor compromise and the establishment of a coalition, neutralist government in Laos. They argue that SEATO intervention would formalize guerrilla war. The French and the British have had sad experience with such Asian wars. France lost a disastrous campaign in Vietnam. Britain took ten years to stamp out guerrillas in Malaya, which has no Communist-bloc frontier. British experts reckon formalized guerrilla war in Laos might last another decade....

"London and Paris feel Washington is too inclined to take a tough line without realizing where that line may lead. We, on the other hand, fear that collapse in Laos also would mean ultimate loss of all Southeast Asia and only toughness can prevent this."

January 3, 1961: US Making Preparations to Meet Crisis in Laos

It was reported today that the US is making preparations to meet the crisis in Laos. "President Eisenhower approved the measures to 'increase the readiness' and the 'airlift capability' of United States forces in the Pacific" and held "an unusual New Year's holiday conference at the White House," the New York Times reported in its lead story, which ran under the subhead, "White House Meeting Considers Steps to Bar War."

Other headlines on this day in 1961:

"Laotian Aide Says Chinese Reds Helped Attack by Leftist Force"

"London Bids U.S. Back Laos Panel; Asks Resuming of 3-Nation Control Commission"

"French Warships Going to Algeria; Navy Units Carrying 6,000 Troops Will Sail Tomorrow for Tense Oran Region"

"Belgium Makes Peace Bid As Strikers Set Showdown"

"UN Chief Scores Belgians for Aid To Congo Troops"

"Castro Tells U.S. Staff in Embassy Must Be Slashed"

January 2, 1961: Rebels Advance in Laos, US Shows Off New Portable A-bomb

"Rebels Advancing in Laos; US Urges SEATO Session on Intervention by Reds," was the lead headline in today's New York Times. The story reported that Communist forces had captured Phongsaly and the Central Plain, including a airstrip.

In other news reported today, the UN set a hearing on Cuba's charge that the US planned to attack the island nation imminently. The White House has recently denied similar reports.

Papers also reported today that President-elect Kennedy sent a message of hope to the Soviet Union. The note expressed his hope that "in the coming months relations between our tow great countries will be marked by goodwill and a common desire for peace."

There was also a report today that the Army had a new, portable A-bomb rocket: "the Army made public today details of the Davy Crockett rocket, designed to provide the foot soldier with a highly mobile weapon equal in fire-power to massed heavy artillery.

"It can be fired from a launcher on a Jeep. A smaller version of the Davy Crockett can be carried by one man.

"The army also released the first picture of the rocket, which can hurl nuclear or conventional warheads across battle lines at ranges no greater than those of conventional artillery.

"The picture disclosed a gun barrel roughly five or six feet long topped by a blunt-headed bomb about thrity inches long and equipped with aerodynamic fins.

"The barrel is used as a recoilless rifle. Two explosions are set off simultaneously in the barrel to fire the warhead in one direction and offset the effects of recoil in the other

"Wilber M. Brucker, Secretary of the Army, said that the weapon 'dwarfs in firepower anything we have ever known in the immediate are of the battle line."

Tuesday, January 02, 2007

January 1, 1961: Laos Analysis

This day in 1960 is a Sunday and an analysis of week's developments in Laos appears in the New York Times:

Communist intervention in strategic Laos has risen in recent weeks and there are no signs of an imminent tapering off. Indeed, if the volume of Communist propaganda against the new pro-Western Government of Prince Boun Oumand the efforts the Communist block is making to marshal international opinion against the regime and nations friendly to it represent any test, the Communist drive against Laos is entering a new and dangerous phase.

"The situation at the moment in Laos, as a result of these Communist moves, is the most critical one in East Asia. Many observers in this part of the world fear that the war in Laos, which heretofore has been limited to Laotians fighting under the generally misunderstood labels of pro-Westerners and pro-Communists, may spread to include foreign forces actually representing the two conflicting world power blocs. Indeed, Laos charged yesterday that North Vietnamese troops had crossed the border.

"The plight of Laos, most of whose 2,000,000 inhabitants want no part of the Western or Communist bloc and ask only to be left alone to follow their ancient, slow-paced way of life, grows out of the country's strategic position. With a pro-Communist Government, Laos cold be a staging area for greatly increased Communist guerrilla activity in South Vietnam, would enable the Communist to launch long-delayed terrorist moves against Thailand and would make it possible for the Communists to exert possibly overwhelming pressure against neutralist Cambodia.

"From the Western standpoint a pro-Western Government in Laos makes it impossible for pro-Co0mmunists to use the country as a corridor for large-scale movements of arms and personnel, although the lack of population in its rugged eastern mountains and the absence of communications will always allow considerable freedom of movement to small bands.

"A clue to the method the Communist bloc will use in pushing its aims in Laos is the insistence of the Soviet Union, Communist China and North Vietnam that the only legal Government of Laos is that of the neutralist Prince Souvanna Phouma, who became Premier last August and who fled with the bulk of his Cabinet to Cambodia Dec. 9.

December 31, 1960: US Warns Reds on Laos

The U.S. State Department today warned the Reds in China and North Vietnam not to support the Communist rebels in Laos. A spokesman said the US would take "the most serious view" of intervention. The invasion comes after weeks of Soviet help for the rebels in Laos. The Soviets have dropped supplies to the fighters. An American plan observing the operation was fired on. US officials think Vietnamese soldiers accompanied some Soviet shipments of howitzers.

In Moscow Premier Khrushchev extended an olive branch to the incoming Kennedy administration. Khrushchev said he would drop the U-2 spy plane issue that had been such a bone of contention with the US.

December 30, 1960: Vietnam Invades Laos, UN Help Sought

Troops from Communist North Vietnam have invaded Laos, the Laotian government said. Communist China may have also sent troops. Laos asked for assistance from the United Nations to repel the attackers. About 2,000 troops from North Vietnam are believed to have crossed the border into Northern Laos.

In Belgium, violence escalated. One striker was killed and three wounded. Rioters smashed the windows of the Sabena Airlines terminal in downtown Brussels.

About 300 Negro sharecroppers in Tennessee fighting eviction received a temporary order from a court allowing them to stay on the farm where they work as their legal battle continues.

President-elect Kennedy's decision to appoint McGeorge Bundy as his national security advisor is "completely incredible," Massachusetts Governor Foster Furcolo said today. Bundy, he said, is "completely unqualified."

Friday, December 29, 2006

December 29, 1960: Red China Farm Crisis

In Red China, half of all farm land had been crippled by drought, floods, typhoons, hailstorms, frost, inspects or plant diseases, Peiping said.

In California, a group of writers and actors is suing the major movie companies for having political blacklists of people considered subversive.

Private enterprise will be allowed to develop and use satellites for communications, the Eisenhower administration has decided. The incoming Kennedy administration is undecided about whether it will continue the policy.

In Brussels, King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola returned home today as violence continued. Socialists are leading a strike against the government over austerity measures.

T.S. Eliot, the prize-winning poet, said contemporary poetry should not be studied formally in school, only poetry of the past.

Thursday, December 28, 2006

December 28, 1960: Britain and France Favor Coalition Government in Laos, Creating Split with U.S.

The U.S. and two of its allies are split over how to respond to events in Laos, according to a report being prepared for publication in tomorrow's New York Times. Britain and France support a role for the Left and Neutralists in the government, according to the report. The U.S. opposes a coalition government. Meanwhile, Communist China said in a letter released today that the situation in Laos had "developed to extremely serious proportions" and that China would "have to consider taking measures to safeguard its own security." In another development, the shots that hit a U.S. plane over Laos may have been from the ground, not a Soviet plane, according to officials in Washington.

Jews living outside Israel are godless and violated the precepts of their religion, Israeli Premier David Ben-Gurion said today. "Since the day when the Jewish state was established and the gates of Israel were flung open to every Jew who wanted to come, every religious Jew has daily violated the precepts of Judaism and the Torah of Israel by remaining the the Diaspora," he said.

In Brussels there were clashes between police and demonstrators today. It was the tenth day of a widespread strike against a government austerity program.

Wednesday, December 27, 2006

December 27, 1960: Reds Fire at US Plane over Laos

A Soviet plane supplying Communist rebels in Laos today fired on a U.S. Embassy aircraft observing the operation. An embassy spokesman said the machine gun fire "knocked out one engine and tore several holes in the fuselage." There were no injuries.

Yugoslavia said today it would enact monetary reforms to link its economy more closely to the West.

The US will join with four NATO allies to produce a new military jet in Europe. The plan is significant because it provides for large contribution from European nations. The US will foot only one-tenth of the cost of the F-104G Starfighter jets.

President-elect Kennedy today said he wold nominate John B. Connally Jr. of Fort Worth Texas as his Navy Secretary.

Residents of New York will soon be able to pick up their telephones and get information on emergencies by dialing a special number. At other times the round-the-clock number will be available for information on train and airline schedules. Under the innovative new arrangement a municipal radio station will convey information to the New York Telephone Company.

Tuesday, December 26, 2006

December 26, 1960: 'White House Family Gay' and Other Headlines

These are some of the headlines that appear on the front page of the New York Times on this day in 1960:

"Pentagon to Play More Direct Role in Arms Parleys; Military is Expected to Take a Major Part in Planning for Disarmament Talks; Nitze to Guide Policy; New Kennedy Defense Aide Holds Informal Meetings -- Studies Under Way."

"Changing U.N. Outlook: New U.S. Policy Awaited; Kennedy Administration Stand Watched as World Body Faces a Dangerous Crisis Over Soviet's Congo Role."

"Kennedy to Hold Meeting on Space; Johnson and Kerr Will Join President-elect Today -- Dillon Will Be Present."

"Nixon Backs Curbs on Racial Barriers in Jobs and Homes."

"Lumumba Group Seizes 4 in Raid on Area in Congo; Kivu Chief is Believed Held by Band From Oriental -- Plea Sent to Mobutu."

"Belgian Leftists Press Defiance; Ask New Strikes; Police Raid Socialist Paper -- Charge Leaflets Urged Soldiers to Mutiny."

"Nehru Cool to Call by Soviet for Talks in Geneva on Laos."

"Lavon is Cleared in Israeli Inquiry; Cabinet Group Says Forgery Was Employed to Accuse Ex-Defense Minister."

"Christmas Cheer, Renewing Hopes, Brightens World; Eisenhower, Kennedy and Truman Attend Services -- White House Family Gay."

"Theory That Continents Wander Is Supported by British Scientist."

Monday, December 25, 2006

December 25, 1960: Soviet Intentions on the Eve of a New Administration

A news analysis in today's New York Times takes up the topic of Communist tactics: "As President-elect Kennedy and his foreign policy team survey the world scene preparatory to taking over responsibility less than four weeks from today, they find the United States subject to Soviet pressures of the most diverse kind in every continent. ... At one extreme, some of Moscow's current activities could conceivably provoke World War III in the near future if continued unchecked. At the other extreme, Moscow is holding out the hand of alleged friendship to the new Kennedy regime, hinting it wants to make a deal which could greatly reduce world tensions. ...

"In Laos the continued Soviet airdrops of weapons and supplies to the rebel forces of Capt. Kong Le raise the most serious possibilities that a new Korea-type war may be in the making. Moreover, recent statements from Communist China and North Vietnam have raised the possibilities that these countries may intervene actively with troops to help the rebels recapture Vientiane and defeat Gen. Phoumi Nosavan's forces.

"In the Congo, the Soviet press has approved the action of the Lumumba lieutenant, Antoine Gizenga, in declaring that he now heads the Congo's legal government and has moved the capital to Stanleyville. This has raised the possibility that the Soviet Union might recognize the Stanleyville group, enter into diplomatic relations with it, and give it military and other aid. ...

"On the explosive subject of West Berlin, Soviet pressure continues through the East Germans, who have threatened to cut off that isolated Western enclave if the new trade treaty with West Germany is not quickly concluded.

"In Latin America, the Soviet Union pledged itself last week not only to sponsor the industrialism of Cuba, but also to guarantee Cuba against major losses if the United States prohibition on the importing of Cuban sugar should continue all next year."

Sunday, December 24, 2006

December 24, 1960: Page One Headlines, with Threats Against Israel over Bomb

These were some of the headlines on page one of the New York Times today:

"US urges Soviet to Avoid Causing New Berlin Crisis; Bids Moscow Show Sincerity by Not Permitting Actions That Heighten Tension; Approaches Are Made; Capital Fears Consequences if the East-West German Trade Talks Break Down."

"Soviet Says it Hopes Amity Will Grow Under Kennedy; Gromyki, in Address Accuses Eisenhower of Causing Division."

"India Fears a Major War in South Asia Over Laos."

"Nasser Threatens Israel on A-Bomb."

This final story begins: "President Gamal Abdel Nasser warned tonight that if the United Arab Republic became convinced that Israel was making an atoic bomb, 'this will be the beginning of war between us and Israel.' He warned that the United Arab Republic would invade Israel 'to destroy the base of aggression before that base is used against us.'"

December 23, 1960: On Israel and the Bomb

Arthur Krock concludes his column in today's New York Times about suspicions Israel is developing an A-bomb by writing, "The Arab world is agitated with alarm over the possibility of an Israel armed with nuclear weapons. And the Soviets have seized a perfect opportunity to foment the trouble both ways: by playing on Israeli nationalism, to which it pretends to believe the United States has given just offense; and by arousing the Arabs.

"But Israel too has a perfect opportunity -- for a constructive action which will cancel the damage and Moscow's effort to increase it. Israel can conform to the spirit of Chairman McCone's offer at Vienna by placing under the present and future safeguards of the [Atomic Energy] Agency the reactor it is building. That would assist in the pursuit of world peace the United States, the nation which has given the most generous assistance to Israel's economy."

Friday, December 22, 2006

December 22, 1960: Communist Youth to Gather in Chicago, Hoover Warns

"The Communists are completing final arrangements for a conference to be held in Chicago beginning Dec. 31 to formulate plans for a new national youth organization," FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover said today. The Communist Party is the largest subversive organization in the country and has strengthened ties with the Soviet Union and Cuba, he said. "In addition the Communists hope to repeat the success which they achieved on the West Coast last May in spearheading mob demonstrations by college students and other young people against a committee of Congress," Hoover said in reference to a demonstration in San Francisco at a hearing of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A municipal judge dismissed riot charges against 62 demonstrators saying they were protesting what they believed to be an undemocratic hearing.

A State Department spokesman said today that the Soviet aid to rebels in Laos was "a sinister factor" and that the US had "serious concern" about Soviet aid for pro-Communists in Laos. The Southeast Asian country could become "a second Korea," a Soviet commentator also said today.

The State Department said today that an Israeli nuclear reactor "does not represent cause for special concern." The US received reassurances from Israel that the reactor would be used for peaceful purposes.

Thursday, December 21, 2006

December 21, 1960: 'A New Voice in Laos'

An editorial in the New York Times on this day in 1960, headlined, "A New Voice in Laos," states, "The new Government of Premier Roun Oum in Laos appears to be firmly in the saddle and, speaking with a more decisive voice than has been heard in Laos for some time, Prince Boun Ouba [sp?] declares that thee can be no coalition Government, and that, while Loas is bound to military neutrality, 'neutrality' as expounded in Asia has become a 'vain word' contradicting the facts of life.

"The development is welcome in Washington as offering Laos another opportunity to protect its freedom and integrity. For that purpose the United States is resuming its suspended military aid and other Southeast Asian allies are giving civilian aid to help devastated Vientiane.

"but the danger to Laos is not yet over. As in the Congo, the Soviets refuse to accept defeat and with the aid of Chinese and North Vietnamese Communists continue to airlift arms and ammunition to the retreating rebels. at the same time, the Soviets are seeking to gain by wile what they have not gained by force. This move aims at calling an 'international conference' to settle the Laotian problem, at a revival of the disbanded control commisson dominated by India and Poland, and at the establishment of another 'neutralist' Government of 'national unity,' including the Communists. It is regrettable that British Foreign Secretary Home, despite all the experience in Czechoslovakia, in China and in Laos itself, seems to be lending aid to this move. Premoer Boun Oum has rightly characterized it as an attempt to 'bring the wolf into the sheepfold.'"

Wednesday, December 20, 2006

December 20, 1960: Illinois Requires Two Ballots for Kennedy

From today's Chicago Daily Tribune: "It required two ballots for Illinois Democratic electors to cast 27 unanimous votes for John F. Kennedy today. On the first ballot, only 26 Kennedy votes were turned in, to the embarrassment of Democratic leaders. Republicans have charged that except for vote frauds in Chicago the Illinois electoral votes would have gone to Vice President Nixon."

In another story, from Honolulu, UPI reports, "Hawaii's three Republican electors cast their votes for Vice President Nixon today, but Sen. John F. Kennedy was leading in a recount of Presidential ballots. Because of the recount trend, three Democratic electors cast ballots for Kennedy and had them notarized. Theirs was not the officials ceremony but the votes of both sets of electors will go to a joint session of Congress Jan 6 where the issue will be decided finally."

Tuesday, December 19, 2006

December 19, 1960: US Deceived on Israel's Atom Work, Kennedy Election Final

Many deliberations of the president's national security council are a waste of time, the Senate Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery said in a report released on this day in 1960.

The Electoral College met today and elected John F. Kennedy to be the 35th president of the United States.

US officials had been deceived into believing that a plutonium-producing reactor under construction in Israel was a textile mill. The US now believes the plant may be making material for an A-bomb.

The US will begin soon resume military assistance to the pro-Western government in Laos.

The US moved a step closer to matching Soviet achievements in space today with. An unmanned Mercury capsule traveled 235 miles out over the Atlantic Ocean. "The next flight could include a chimpanzee," said Robert Gilruth, director of the Mercury program.

Sunday, December 17, 2006

December 18, 1960: Israel May be Building A-Bomb, US Policy on Laos

The United States has questioned Israel about reports that it is developing atomic weapons, John McCone, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission said today. The New York Times is preparing a story for tomorrow's edition that will say the U.S. is "studying with mounting concern recent evidence indicating that Israel, with the assistance of France, may be developing the capacity to produce atomic weapons." Israel denied that is is making an atomic bomb. The Times story will quote a US official as saying that if Israel is working on a bomb it would take another two and a half years to complete the development."

Today in the New York Times, a summary of US policy towards Laos: "...the State Department made it clear this week that the United States would not hesitate to give Laos every possible assistance in case of aggression from outside. It planned to go ahead with its long-standing program of economic and military aid to the Government of Laos.

"The stakes in Laos were high indeed. Its location at the heart of southeast Asia made the small and backward land of utmost strategic importance. Its loss to the Communists would open up long borders of friendly powers such as Thailand and South Vietnam to infiltration by the Communists. It was also felt here [in Washington] that the loss of Laos to the Communists would prove an irreparable blow to United States and Western prestige throughout Asia.

"but Laos is still a long way fro home for most Europeans. And was it really worth fighting for? Would it not be better to take a stand elsewhere, later? Was the risk of major conflict justified? The United States was saying 'yes' it was worth it and 'no' it would not be better to stand up and be counted later. Its friends were beginning at last to listen, but as yet with only one ear."

December 17, 1960: Laos a Flashpoint

"The United States Government has served notice that it supports the legitimate Laotian Government of Premier Boun Oum and will do what it can to help that Government to overcome any threat of external aggression," an editorial in the New York Times on this day in 1960 states. "This position is supported by the whole Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which has put strategic Laos under its protection and denounced Soviet shipments of heavy arms and Communist technicians to the Left-Wing rebel forces as 'outside interference' in Laotian internal affairs.

"There is hope that the issue may be decided by the recapture of the administrative capital of Vientiene by Government forces. The issue has been simplified by the fact that the forces of Captain Kong, who staged a coup d'etat to establish a neutralist Government, since overthrown by the National Assembly and disbanded by the King, have made common cause with the pro-Communist Pathet Lao forces, making the formerly three-cornered civill war a clear struggle between Communists and anti-Communists.

"In keeping with the Indochinese agreements, the United States stands, as Secretary Herter emphasizes, for a 'united and neutral' Laos. But any threat of 'external' aggression, which under the Southeast Asia Treaty could mean either direct or indirect aggression, would call for action in what Secretary Herter calls a 'tragic and dangerous' situation in which 'the fate of Southeast Asia may very well be decided by what happens in Laos.'"

In related news, the Soviet Union and its allies are responsible for the fighting in Laos, the US State Department said today.

West Germany said today it is backing the U.S. position for Allied control of the Atlantic nuclear force.

A US Air Force plane crashed into a crowded Munich, Germany, street car today, killing at least 50.

Saturday, December 16, 2006

December 16, 1960: Airliners Collide over New York City, Man Held in 'Human-Bomb Plot to Kill Kennedy

Two airliners collided over New York City on this day in 1960. One fell on Staten Island, the other in Brooklyn, killing 127 passengers and crew and five on the ground.

In Laos, pro-West forces took the administrative capital of Vietiane, following a 76-hour battle for the city.

In Havana it was disclosed that Cuba and the Soviet Union have agreed to expand trade.

In Florida a man was held in a plot to kill President-elect Kennedy. The 73-year-old retired postal clerk from New Hampshire, upset at the way Kennedy had won the election, planned to make himself into a "human bomb." He was found with seven sticks of dynamite, blasting caps, wiring and other equipment. He was picked up in a routine traffic stop. Richard

"If any further proof was needed that the reach of American scientists into space still exceeds the grasp of their rockets, it was provided by the explosive failure of the moon shot at Cape Canaveral early this morning," John Finney writes in a news analysis in the New York Times on this day in 1960. "Aside from being another psychological setback to a space program that had just seemed to be hitting an impressive stride, the failure demonstrated once again that the United states was still a long way from perfecting reliable, heavy-duty launching rockets for space missions.

"Eight times now the United States -- first the Air Force and Army and then the civilian space agency -- have tried, with what in retrospect seems undue haste to send a payload to the vicinity of the moon and thus perhaps match or offset the spectacular lunar feats of the Soviet Union. Only one, the 134-pound Pioneer IV that passed within 37,300 miles of the moon in March, 1959, was partly successful.

"The national embarrassment provided by these necessarily public failures was only heightened by the fact that the Soviet Union, which can conceal its failures, was sending a payload within 5,000 miles of the moon, then landing a payload on the moon itself and finally sending a satellite around to photograph the backside of the moon during 1959."

Also in today's paper it was reported that the US will aid the anti-Communist Government in Laos in resisting Red aggression.

A headline in today's Chicago Daily Tribune reads, "Tenth of 1% of Vote Puts Kennedy In." Kennedy had a margin of 112,801 votes out of 68,832,670.

Friday, December 15, 2006

December 15, 1960: Illinois Casts Votes for Kennedy, Deciding November Election Outcome

In Springfield, Illinois, "The five-mamber state electoral board unanimously certified today [Dec. 14] John F. Kennedy's hair-line victory in Illinois, where twenty-seven electoral votes were at stake," the New York Times reported today. "The board, headed by Gov. William G. Stratton, a Republican, rejected arguments by Cook County and Chicago Republican leaders that there was evidence of widespread fraud in the Nov. 8 elections in Chicago and Cook County that would justify the withholding of certification."

An editorial in the Chicago Daily Tribune today, "The Lesson of the Stolen Votes," argues that the electoral board's decision should not be criticized. "There is no doubt now that thousands of votes were stolen from Vice President Nixon. Altho it is highly probably that Mr. Nixon actually won Illinois, proof of his victory is lacking. The electoral board could not be expected to supplant the official returns from the 102 counties of the state with a conjecture of what an honest count would show. Most lawyers agree that the board lacks this power."

Anthony Lewis reports for the New York Times today about how the Republicans lost the Negro vote, following a report yesterday that a couple of phone calls by the Kennedys had made the difference. "At the climax of the election campaign the Justice Department prepared a statement for President Eisenhower to issue on the jailing of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The draft statement deplored the arrest of the anti-seggregationist leader on a traffic charge in Georgia as 'fundamentally unjust.' It said the President was asking the Attorney General to help seek his release.

"The statement was never issued. Just why is not clear, but it seems beyond dispute now that such strong words, coming from the President, would have had a major impact on the Negro vote."

From United Press International comes this warning: "Discovery of life on other worlds could cause the earth's civilization to collapse, a Federal report said today. The warning was contained in a research report given to the National aAeronautics and Space Administration with the recommendation that the world prepare itself mentally for the eventuality."

In Laos, anti-Communist forces held the center of Vientiane 18 hours after recapturing it for the second time since an assault began on the capital three days ago.

In Cuba, members of the "anti-Red" Electrical Workers Union, facing dismissal from the union and arrest on charges of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activities, took refuge in Latin American embassies in Havana, the New York Times reported today.

A coup in Ethiopia has ousted Emperor Halle Selassie. The Imperial Household Guard was reportedly responsible. The emperor's son claimed power.

Thursday, December 14, 2006

December 14, 1960: Kennedy Election May Have Hinged on Phone Calls

The election of John Kennedy could have hinged on "a couple of phone calls." It was reported today that President Eisenhower said that was all it took to swing the Negro vote to the Democrats. The president was apparently referring to phone calls that Kennedy and his brother, Robert, made after the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was jailed in Georgia. One of the John Kennedy's calls was to Mrs. King. Robert Kennedy called the judge who had sentenced King and persuaded him to release King on bail. Some feared that King could be killed while in jail.

The National Review recently ran a piece entitled "President-Elect Nixon?" It concluded that, "Americans tend to resign themselves easily to political events, and it is notoriously difficult to stir up a sustained demand for investigations of electoral fraud. In fact the prestige of a politician seems never to be hurt even if he is generally recognized to have won -- as Senator Harry Truman did -- thanks to the tombstone vote."

It was reported today that James R. Killian, who served as President Eisenhower's first special assistant for science and technology, believes the nation is spending too much money on space programs. He suggested the billions could be better spent on defense, education and deteriorating urban neighborhoods.

The French Army in Algeria shot and killed to European demonstrators, as protests there continued. To date, 108 Moslems and six Europeans have been killed in clashes with security forces.

In the Congo Antoine Gizenga, who the New York Times describes as a "Communist sympathizer," said he represented the country's lawful government. Gizenga was vice premier under Patrice Lumumba.

Wednesday, December 13, 2006

December 12, 1960: Election Suits Dismissed

From the Chicago Daily Tribune from this day in 1960: "Two suits filed by Chicago Republicans to compel the city and the county canvassing boards to correct their reports on the basis of vote discrepancies uncovered in a recheck were dismissed yesterday by Judge Thomas E. Kluczynski in Circuit court.

"At the same time, a federal judge in Houston, Tex., dismissed a case in which Republicans sought a recount of the Texas vote on the ground that G.O.P. voters as a class had been deprived of their civil rights thru 'dilution' of their votes. His dismissal of a temporary injunction which had been granted the Republicans opened the way for casting Texas' 24 electoral votes for Sen. John F. Kennedy, the Democratic Presidential nominee."

December 13, 1960: 'Russia Threatens Indochina'

"Russia Threatens Indochina" is the headline of an editorial in the New York Times on this day in 1960. "The fate of Indochina again hangs in the balance as a result of direct Soviet military intervention in the three-cornered civil war in Laos, the strategic gateway to South Vietnam and Cambodia. Within hours after a turnover of four Governments in four days had put the Leftist in power in the administrative capital of Vientiane, Soviet planes began to fly in arms and ammunition to them, including artillery. Having thus openly engaged themselves, the Soviets must be expected to go further, unless the Rightist forces surrounding the capital quickly turn the scale.

"The Soviet intervention in an area long preempted by the Chinese Communist follows the latter's more militant interpretation of the new Communist manifesto calling for an intensified international 'class war' as part of 'peaceful coexistence.' But it is in flagrant violation of the Geneva armistice agreement of 1954, which forbids the introduction of foreign troops or arms into Laos beyond those specified. It is in equally flagrant violation of the United Nations Charter under which a United Nations 'presence' has already been established in Laos to check on Communist aggression.

"But this intervention is above all, and is obviously intended to be, an open challenge to the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which extends its protection to three of the Indochinese states, even if the armistice agreement keeps them from being members of it. The Organization's Council of Ministers, meeting in special session in Bangkok denounces the Soviet action as 'outside interference' which can only prolong the conflict. But it is handicapped by the fact that even if it declared the Soviet action a threat to Laos' political independence it can take action only with the consent of the government concerned, and there is no legal government in Laos at the moment. The Government of Premier Prince Souvanna -- whose ill-fated attempt to unite the country and end the Communist revolt 'en famille' in Laotian style has failed -- has been ousted by the National Assembly and has disintegrated. The Leftists now ruling in Vientiane have no legal mandate. The one legal authority left is the King, who is revered by the whole population. He has kept himself thus far in reserve, but time is running out."

Monday, December 11, 2006

December 12, 1960: Mid-Air Capture of Space Capsules Hailed as 'Gigantic Step Forward'

A New York Times editorial on this day is headlined "Space Catch" and says, "Anyone who seeks a measure of how fast and how far this country has progressed in space technology in the last three years need look no further than the score on the recoveries of recent Discoverer space capsules. The capsules of four of the last six Discoverer satellites sent into orbit have been recovered. Three of the last five capsules sent into orbit have been caught in space, and two of three space catches have been made on the last two attempts. Capt. Gene W. Jones, who made those last two catches, has a reasonable claim to be the best catcher of all time. There can now be no doubt that the United States has fully mastered the technique of recovering objects sent into space. It is a gigantic step forward."

The following are some of the headlines on the front page of today's New York Times:

"61 Dead in Algiers Riots; Troops Fire on Moslems; De Gaulle Shortens Visit; 300 are Wounded; Europeans Retaliate for Algerian Acts of Terrorism."

"De Gaulle's Algeria Policy Undergoing a Crucial Test."

"Spain Will Curb De Gaulle's Foes."

"Soviet Warns Britain of Attack if U.S. Submarines Stir Incident."

"Soviet Guns Sent into Laos by Air; Pro-Red in Power."

"Atlanta Negroes March in Protest."

"Kennedy Confers on Cabinet Posts."

"Mansfield Urges Filibuster Foes to Defer a Fight; Probable Majority Leader Bids Party Liberals Put Kennedy Plans First."

And from the Chicago Daily Tribune, this headline:

"Daley Labeled Mastermind in Recount Stall."

December 11, 1960: Illinois 'Inadequate' to Counter Stolen Election, Editorial Says

The following editorial, under the headline "Once An Election is Stolen" appeared in the Chicago Daily Tribune on this day in 1960:

"We have little doubt that most of the people of Cook country are convinced -- and feel that they have good reason for the conviction -- that the election of Nov. 8 was characterized by such gross and palpable fraud as to justify the conclusion that at least two Republican candidates were deprived of victory. These were Richard Nixon for President and Benjamin Adamowski for state's attorney.

"But as the exploratory re-count has proceeded, it has become more and more apparent that the complexities of law and procedure and shortage of time in which to undo manifest fraud, not to mention the vast expense entailed, all are combining to militate against the correction of injustice.

"As it has told the story day by day, the Tribune has never failed to make clear to its readers that the difficulties of cutting thru the legal snarl and overcoming the rear guard action of a powerful political apparatus were great. So it may be wise if the voters do not burden themselves with the illusion that it would be simple, given the evidence produced, to reverse the result of the vote officially proclaimed by Democrats who control the county election machinery.

"The painful process to achieve that result has begun with the completion of the 'discovery' re-count. When Democratic members of the Chicago canvassing board walked out on an appeal that they correct the vote in conformity with the re-count, mandamus suits were filed in Circuit court against the city and county canvassing boards to force such action, and members of these boards were subpenaed as defendants. On Wednesday the state electoral board will be asked not to certify Sen. Kennedy as winner of Illinois' electoral votes. ...

"The behavior of the board, which as only one Republican member to four Democrats, has from the beginning inspired a minimum of confidence. When the board was compelled to honor a Republican demand that 460 judges of election appear before the Chicago canvassing board to answer questions on the genuineness of their returns [the chairman] summoned all at the same hour to a small room and produced a mob scene which prohibited orderly process. He then dismissed the lot after asking the perfunctory and meaningless question whether the tally displayed to them was what they reported. ...

"At the end of this discovery rigmarole, revision of the voting totals to reflect even admitted errors was refused by the canvassing board. The sole probable result is that sufficient grounds have been established for bringing a court suit for an official re-count on grounds of fraud. Even this depended on the vigilance of Republican volunteer watchers.

"If the re-count were directed, those acting for defrauded candidates had the knowledge that expenses to be borne by protesting candidates would be of the order of hundreds of thousands of dollars, and they were advised by lawyers that the re-count itself might not be completed for a year and a half.

"All of this action is directed against a deadline of Dec. 19, by which time the state electoral board must decide whether the results of the election are to be certified. The decision rests on the board's determination wether the Cook county vote is to be accepted as it has been proclaimed by Democrats of the election board and in the office of county clerk. The proclamation was issued days before the discovery re-count was begun and rests essentially on the totals reported form the precincts on election night.

"The state board, with a Republican majority, is in a constitutional no man's land. If it refuses to certify, Illinois' 27 electoral votes might be withheld from John F. Kennedy. But if the electors, all Democrats, proceeded to forward the report of the electoral vote to Washington, the possibility exists that a Democratic Congress would accept it and defy contention that it could not legally be cast.

"The difficulty is in getting an honest report of the voting results in Cook county to the state board at Springfield. The two Democratic members of the three man county canvassing board are the mayor of Chicago and the county clerk. They have already signed the proclamation that Cook county went to Kennedy and to the other Democratic candidates whose title to office is in dispute.

"Whatever the evidence, it is unlikely that these highly interested officials would have a sudden access of conscience sufficient to induce them to withdraw the previous proclamation and replace it with once more in accord with the facts, unless the courts force them to do so.

"Give all of these circumstances, complications, and political ambushes, it would be an wary citizen who gave way to the illusion that Illinois might suddenly be swung to Richard Nixon. Even Sen. Thruston Morton, the Republican national chairman, has conceded that the possibility of reversing the election is remote.

"The investigation to date, incomplete and superficial as it may be, has demonstrated that existing election procedures in Illinois, particularly as they are applied in Chicago, are inadequate to defend the integrity of the ballot, or to insure an honest count. The law under which the election machinery operates is so complex and cumbersome that it affords, in effect, almost no recourse to an injured contestant in a stolen election."

Sunday, December 10, 2006

December 10, 1960: Alabama Electors Shun Kennedy for Opposing 'Everything We Hold Dear in the South'

Moslems backing de Gaulle rioted in Algeria for the second day. "The silent, noncommittal Moslems of the Algerian cities came out of their casbahs to wreck and pillage and demonstrate their smoldering antagonism to the Europeans," Thomas Brady wrote of today's unrest for the New York Times. The Moslems shouted slogans in support of de Gualle's policy, which would establish grant self-determination. At the same time Europeans in Algeria are rioting in opposition to de Gualle's policy.

In Moscow, Ernesto Che Guevara said today that Cuba would be a model for revolution across Latin America. A New York Times article about Guevara's statement describes him as "the bearded director of Cuba's economy, wearing an open-necked army shirt."

In Laos, a military junta took over the administrative capital of Vientiane. The High Committee of the Armed Forces arranged for peace talks with anti-Communist rebels east of the city, hoping to prevent them for joining pro-Western forces approaching the city from the south.

It was disclosed to reporters today that the government plans to subsidize development of a supersonic airliner. "The program is being pushed in the interests of national prestige, the economic health of the aviation industry and the national defense," Richard Witkin wrote in a story for tomorrow's edition of the New York Times. The plane would be ready for the airlines to operate as soon as 1968. The craft would be a new design, with movable wings, and would fly 2,000 mph, or Mach 3. The government expects industry to pay half the development cost, estimated at between $550 million and $1 billion.

In other aviation news, a satellite capsule was captured in mid-air as it fell to earth. It was the third space capsule from a Discovery satellite to be captured by an Air Force squad of nine planes.

In Alabama, the state's six unpledged Democratic electors said they will not support Kennedy. They pledged to vote "for an outstanding Southern Democrat who sympathizes with our peculiar problems in the South." They were critical of other southerners who "ally themselves with a candidate who avowedly would integrate our schools, do away with literacy tests as a qualification for voting [and] ... undermine everything we hold dear in the South."

These stories were written today for the front page of tomorrow's Chicago Daily Tribune:

In a story from Texas, "The Federal Bureau of Investigation today moved into the unique case set for federal court hearing Monday to determine whether there is recourse for the people against vast irregularities in the Presidential election. Agents of the FBI interviewed Hardy Hollers, Republican attorney who obtained a temporary federal injunction to prevent the state canvassing board from certifying victory for the 24 electors. The board wants to proclaim that Sen. John F. Kennedy carried Texas by 46,000 votes."

Robert Wiedrich wrote, "G.O.P. forces seeking to overturn Sen. John F. Kennedy's victory in Illinois, claimed Vice President Nixon gained 5,528 votes and predicted that the discounting of more fraudulent votes would dissolve Kennedy's 8,858 vote margin.

Saturday, December 09, 2006

December 9, 1960: Administration Warns of China Getting the Bomb, Anti-Communist Demonstration in Cuba

The Eisenhower administration warned Congress in a closed session that Communist China may soon get the A-bomb.

In Algeria, riot police used tanks to put down demonstrations in which at least 100 were injured. While Europeans demonstrated, Moslems cheered French President de Gaulle on his visit to Algeria. "The cries, the clamor mean nothing," de Gaulle said.

In Laos, Premier Souvanna Phouma fled the capital of Vientiane for Cambodia as the Communist Pathet Lao and pro-Western troops prepared to fight in the capital.

In Cuba there was an unusual protests by Electric Company workers against Communist attempts to seize their union. The workers, numbering about 1,000, shouted "Cuba yes, Russia no."

In the Congo the UN moved to protect Europeans in Stanleyville in the wake of death threats from supporters of deposed and imprisoned former premier Patrice Lumumba.

David K. E. Bruce, a career diplomat, is a leading contender to be secretary of state in the Kennedy administration.

In a story for tomorrow's edition of the New York Times, William J. Jorden finds that Western diplomats believe the Communists will step up their activity in the underdeveloped world, despite ideological differences. "However, few diplomats believe that these ideological differences foreshadow an open break among the Communist powers in the foreseeable future,"

In Illinois, federal grand jury subpoenas have been issued for voting records from 13 Chicago precincts. Also, the Justice Department has approved another grand jury investigation of vote fraud; it will begin hearing evidence next week.

Friday, December 08, 2006

December 8, 1960: Goldwater Calls for Ending Foreign Aid to 'Inferior People'

Congress should stop giving economic aid to foreign nations, Senator Barry Goldwater told the National Association of Manufacturers today. "We have seen nothing of great value produced in the fifteen years we've been engaged in it," he said. He also said the US should limit the amount of money tourists can take out of the country.

"The United States should begin acting like a world power and quit groveling on its knees to inferior people who like to come to New York," Goldwater said.

In Laos, Leftists took over the administrative capital of Vientiane from neutralists, ending that groups one-day hold on the city.

Cuba has taken over the Royal Bank of Canada's island offices. In September Castro nationalized three US banks on the island.

In the seventh year of a Moslem nationalist rebellion in Algeria, Paris has set a vote for January 8 to decide if Algerians will be given home rule, leading to eventual independence from France.

In Stanleyville, capital of Eastern Province in the Congo, threats have been made against Belgians since the arrest of deposed Premier Patrice Lumumba. UN Secreatary General Dag Hammarskjold called the threats "deeply disturbing."

Moscow said today it will make favorable loans to Cairo for industrial and agricultural development.

In Austin, Texas, the governor and secretary of state said they favor a recount of the November election, but were unsure they had the authority to order it.

Thursday, December 07, 2006

December 7, 1960: Moscow Says US Blocking Korean Unification, Texas Delays Vote Certification for Kennedy

The Soviet Union said today the United States was blocking the re-unification of Korea. Moscow called on the United Nations to force the evacuation of U.S. and other foreign troops from the peninsula.

Dag Hammarskjold said today there would be chaos if the U.N. withdrew its troops from the Congo, as the Soviet Union has said it should.

President Eisenhower is withdrawing naval forces from Central American waters. Navy forces have been patrolling the coast to prevent outside support of any Communist-inspired revolt in Guatemala or Nicaragua.

"Missing ballot applications stirred Republicans ... as they pressed their 'discovery' recount," George Tagge wrote for a story to be published in tomorrow's Chicago Daily Tribune. "They said the recount now gives Vice President Nixon a net gain of 2,978 votes.... Nixon is certain to pick up enough votes in the remaining 463 of the 863 paper ballot precincts, when combined with gains thru rechecking voting machines, to overcome the lead of 8,858 votes by which Sen. John F. Kennedy won Illinois in the Nov. 8 election, said Georges H. Dapples, counsel for the Nixon Recount committee."

Meanwhile, the Tribune will report tomorrow that a federal district court judge in Texas has signed a temporary restraining order prohibiting certification of Texas' 24 electoral votes pending hearing of a Republican suit challenging the validity of the Nov. 8 election.

The president of the international Brotherhood of Teamsters, James Hoffa, was indicted today on charges of misusing more than $500,000 in union funds.

"Mass filing, one of the last purely manual office chores, has been converted into a push-button operation by Diebold, Inc.," a New York Times reporter wrote for a story to be published in tomorrow's edition. "Diebold, a large producer of safes and varied office equipment, demonstrated ... its new automatic filing system, which it calls "open Shelf Power Files."

"The next decade will see a sharp change in the age pattern of the consumer population, a change that has important marketing overtones," Robert Alden wrote in a story to be published tomorrow in the New York Times. "The consumer market will grow considerably younger. The nation's total population will be 20 percent larger by 1970. But the number of persons under 30 will be up by 30 percent."

Wednesday, December 06, 2006

December 6, 1960: Eisenhower and Kennedy Meet, Discuss 'Problems of Peace'

President Eisenhower and President-elect Kennedy met for three hours today to discuss world problems. A joint statement said they discussed "major problems of peace, security and freedom throughout the world, particularly including the American balance of payments and the position of the American dollar."

The Soviet Union today stressed unity with Communist China to achieve world communism. Peiping said it wold continue to go its own way.

The U.S. for the first time released pictures of the atom bombs dropped on Japan 15 years ago.

The Soviet Union today said the U.S. was fomenting civil war in Laos. The Soviet ambassador to the U.S. indicated the possibility of Soviet intervention if the neutralist government is seriously threatened by pro-Western forces.

In Chicago the lawyer for the Nixon Recount Committee said he will ask the State Electoral Board to give the state's electoral votes to Nixon. With one third of the Chicago election board's 863 paper ballot precincts check, Nixon has gained 2,512 votes, according to the G.O.P.

Tuesday, December 05, 2006

December 5, 1960: More Accounts of Chicago Vote Fraud

George Tagge prepared a story for publication in tomorrow's Chicago Daily Tribune saying, "Gross discrepancies sin precinct reports and ballot boxes devoid of ballots sparked Republican hopes ... of keeping Illinois out of the victory column of Sen. John F. Kennedy. Republicans ... announced that their version of the 'discovery' recount in the first 151 precincts checked would give Vice President Nixon a net unofficial gain of 1,283 votes ... In these 151 precincts the Democrats had recount figures allowing gains of only 43 for Nixon ... Democrat said the recount of 277 precincts ... gave Nixon a net gain of 254 votes. ... Democratic election officials admitted the discrepancies in the party's west side strongholds.

"Mrs. Marie Suthers, the Republican member of the three-member Chicago election board, demanded that the precinct judges be called to account. In the 7th precinct of the 29th ward, the 'discovery' recount financed by the G.O.P. compelled Democrats to agree that the recount gave Nixon an unofficial net gain of 81 votes.

"For the 27th ward's 12th precinct Democrats agreed the net G.O.P. gains were 62 for Nixon ... When the ballot box for the 56th precinct of the 10th ward was opened not a single ballot was found. It contained several envelope, some of them with bland ballots which had been initialed by election judges. The box was marked to show that 388 ballots had been cast. The official tally for this precinct asserted that Kennedy got 259 votes to 92 for Vice President Nixon.

"Soon afterward the ballot box for the 86th precinct of the 9th ward was hoisted to a counting table. It bore a notation that 480 ballots had been cast. Inside there was not a single voted ballot."

Another story written for tomorrow's front page begins, "Election officials in precincts in which glaring vote discrepancies have been uncovered were unable to explain yesterday how tallies marked on ballot boxes could vary so widely from the ballots inside."

Another story for tomorrow's Tribune begins, "United States Attorney Robert Tieken said ... that the federal grand jury will inquire into all cases of clear cut violations of federal election laws disclosed by a recheck of the vote in the Nov. 8 election."

In other news, 81 Communist parties around the world signed a declaration pledging victory by peaceful means. It called the Communist party of the Soviet Union the "universally recognized vanguard of the world Communist movement."

In Laos, the government called on the US to halt shipments of arms and ammunition to rebel forces. Premier Souvanna Phouma also said his government had notified rebels that it was open to a cease fire.

Monday, December 04, 2006

December 4, 1960: G.O.P Predicts 10,000 invalid ballots in Chicago

Chicago Daily Tribune reporter Robert Wiedrich wrote in a story to be published tomorrow that Republicans were predicting "that more than 10,000 invalid paper ballot votes will be thrown out in Chicago in a court contest of the Nov. 8 election, possibly reversing the Democratic victory in Illinois.

"At the same time G.O.P. watchers at a recheck by 50 teams of 863 Chicago paper ballot brecincts, being conducted in City hall, reported finding at least 100 straight Republican tickets which had been 'spoiled' by the marking of an additional 'X' in the Socialist-Labor candidates' column.

"In one instance, 15 ballots in a row had been so altered. This was the latest disclosure of apparent fraud and tampering with paper ballots which the Republican leaders charged occurred either while the ballots were being counted at the precinct polling places or after they were stored in warehouses by the city board of election commissioners."

Sunday, December 03, 2006

December 3, 1960: Votes for Nixon Erased in Chicago, G.O.P. Charges; Space Dogs Die

"Scores of Republican votes were erased and Democratic votes substituted in paper ballot precincts in the Nov. 8 election," according to G.O.P. leaders, Robert Wiedrich writes in a story for publication in tomorrow's edition of the Chicago Tribune.

"Ralph Berkowitz, an attorney representing the Republican watchers said Republican votes had been erased in the circle designated for Vice President Nixon and a mark inserted in behalf of Sen. John F. Kennedy, the Democratic candidate who the G.O.P. charges won Illinois' 27 electoral votes thru fraud at the polls.

"'This is one of the most flagrant situations we have found in the recheck of 863 paper ballot precincts in Chicago,' Berkowitz said. 'This again points up the utter disregard for the elections laws that the Democratic machine practiced on election day.'"

The U.S. government needs a plan for developing and using communication satellites, a Senate committee study said today. "Critical decisions" needed to be made soon to ensure the "bright promise" of international communications, the committee said.

Tad Szulc writes in an article for publication tomorrow in the New York Times of Latin America's instability. Of Cuba he says a recent "wave of sabotage ... [is] the worst outbreak of organized opposition to Premier Castro since he gained power almost two years ago. Bombs exploded in Havana and in the interior of the island, damaging public utilities, cutting railroads and creating the very same kind of terror that Dr. Castro had spread when he fought a dictatorship and promised freedom and democracy. Despite the efforts of his heavily armed militia, guerilla activists in Cuba's central mountains could not be eradicated.

Headlines in today's newspapers announced that the latest Soviet ship to go into space went out of control as it returned to earth. The space ship carried two dogs.

Also in the news today is the seizure of Congo's deposed premier, Patrice Lumumba, who had been a fugitive after escaping custody last week. He is now again a prisoner of Col. Joseph Mobuto, who heads the army regime.

Saturday, December 02, 2006

December 2, 1960: Republican Party Official Goes to Chicago, Vietnam Said to be 'Source of Trouble'

Sen Thruston B. Morton of Kentucky, national Republican chairman said today that he would pursue all legal means to "an honest count." In Chicago, Morton said, "I don't think that Sen. Kennedy or Sen. [Henry] Jackson [national Democratic chairman] were aware in advance of the disclosures of fraud now being made. I don't think they would have condoned it." He criticized county officials who refused to endorse corrected vote count figures turned up in a recheck of voting machines.

The Chicago Daily Tribune prepared this story for tomorrow's edition: "Broken and missing seals on a large proportion of boxes containing ballots of the Nov. 8 election provoked protests yesterday from republicans financing the 'discovery' recount of returns. Reporters for the Tribune saw that seals were broken or missing on 13 of 47 corrugated cardboard boxes containing ballots. On Thursday they spotted similar defects on 14 of 21 boxes.

"In addition, reporters noted that in the case of four boxes the precinct judges hadn't written their names across the paper seal and the box as required.

'This represents either fraud or gross irregularities, we don't know which, said Ralph Berkowitz, an attorney for the G.O.P. in the recount. 'The law provides for a seal to keep the boxes safe from tampering.'"

"Six years after the end of the war in Indochina which created the independent states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia this strategically vital area continues to shake under the impact of a Communist aggression that percipitates increasing internal strife," according to an editorial in today's New York Times. "As the three states are no under protection of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, the continued turmoil confronts this organization, and especially the United States as a key member of it, with dangers and problems matching those in Latin America and Africa.

"The immediate focal point of conflict is Laos, where Communist guerrillas, aided and abetted by Communist China and Communist-held North Vietnam, have waged intermittent war throughout the six years. But the real source of trouble is North Vietnam, which is a transit base for Communist penetration into Laos, South Vietnam and Cambodia.

"All three countries have thus far been able to ward off a Communist take-over. But the continued strife and the unmatched Communist aggressiveness are producing a war weariness which finds varying expression in the three states and which Western aid cannot quite allay. The most successful resistance has been offered by President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, but continued Communist raids have created a climate that sparked a Right-Wing military revolt against him, though he managed to suppress it."

Newspapers published today reports that President-elect Kennedy has selected Connecticut Governor Abraham Ribicoff as his nominee for Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, the incoming president's first Cabinet pick.

From Leopoldville it was reported that The Congo has severed ties with the United Arab Republic after allegations that Egyptian diplomats may have helped deposed Premier Patrice Lumumba escape custody.

It was also reported today that the First National Bank of Boston had opened an underground bomb shelter in Pepperell, Mass., to store its records. The shelter was built to withstand the blast of a 20-megaton bomb exploding more than three miles from the site.

Members of a pacifist group, the Committee for Non-Violent Action, began a 6,500-mile march in San Francisco that is to take them to Moscow. They are protesting the growing stockpile of nuclear weapons.

Friday, December 01, 2006

December 1, 1960: Red Dogs in Space, Nixon Picks up Votes in Illinois

"Reds Fire 2 Dogs into Space," reads a headline in today's Chicago Daily Tribune. Moscow radio had this announcement: "In accordance with the program of scientific research the third space ship was orbited as an earth satellite in the Soviet Union on Dec. 1. For medical-biological research in the conditions of space eight experimental animals -- dogs named Pehelka and Mushka -- have been placed in the cabin of the space ship. In the cabin there also are other animals, insects and plants."

"Vice President Nixon made a net unofficial gain of 1,214 votes thru a Republican comparison of actual voting machine figures with official canvass tallies," the Tribune said in a story prepared for publication tomorrow. "Ralph Berkowitz, an attorney aiding the G.O.P., said Nixon apparently can go on to carry Illinois on the paper ballot recount.

"Faced with the withholding of Illinois' 27 electoral votes from Sen. John F. Kennedy for President, Democrats here yesterday abruptly called off their slowdown in the 'discovery' recount of paper ballot precincts. New fires of controversy immediately flared over broken seals on ballot boxes and what happened to surplus ballots in each precinct."

"A southern plan to rally a block of 46 electoral votes to prevent Sen. John F. Kennedy's election as President is under way," the Tribune reported in another story for tomorrow's edition. "At least two prominent southern electors, leaders in the anti-Kennedy movement indicated Vice President Nixon could win the bloc's support if he softened his party's strong civil rights stand. This would give Nixon the 269 electoral votes needed for the Presidency, disregarding the possibility of his picking up Illinois' 27 votes on a recount."

Other election-related headlines prepared for tomorrow's edition include: "How One Man Battled for Honest Vote," Report Jury Asks to Stay on Vote Probe," Finds Vote Frauds in 7 States; G.O.P. Hits Illinois as Top Example," Vote Records Back in File -- But Too Late.

Thursday, November 30, 2006

November 30, 1960: Kennedy May not Get Illinois' Electoral Votes, Governor Says

The Illinois state electoral board may not give the state's 27 electoral votes to Sen. Kennedy, Gov. Stratton (R) said today. He criticized "downright fraud and graft in Chicago" during the Nov. 8 balloting. Nixon lost the state by fewer than 9,000 votes out of more than 4,750,000 cast. The state board recessed without setting a date to meet again because it has not gotten voting information from Cook County. The governor said there was an intentional "slowdown" in Democratic-controlled county. "There's no question that they are stalling in Chicago. It's dastardly to steal a man's vote -- and that's what has been happening," the governor said. "It's flagrant." The governor also described "widespread disregard of laws, state and federal," during the voting. The board may keep the state's electoral votes from going to either candidate.

The State's Attorney, Benjamin Adamowski said the Democratic organization in Chicago stole 100,000 or more votes. "Speaking with bitter words at a press conference, Adamowski in effect charged that the Democratic machine headed by Daley as his party's county chairman virtually 'stole' the White House for Sen. John F. Kennedy," according to the Chicago Daily Tribune.

"He insisted that, in one phase f the operation, enough legitimate Republican voters were deprived of their voting right by the mysterious disappearance of their names from precinct polling place binders to shift Illinois from Vice President Nixon to Kennedy. ...

"When the manipulation of a political machine is used as a vehicle to take over the White House it is a sad day in American politics," Adamowski said.

In Cuba, Manuel Fajardo, personal physician to Fidel Castro, was killed in fighting with rebels in the Escambray mountains, it was reported today.

November 29, 1960: Lumumba Missing, Espionage Ring, Integration Battles

In Leopoldville, the Congo, the UN said it did not know the whereabouts of Patrice Lumumba, the deposed premier. The UN command said his escape from a guarded residence was not its fault. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union said the UN had t o withdraw its troops from the Congo.

The government charged a psychiatrist with being tied to an espionage. Robert Soblen, who was charged, is the brother of imprisoned Soviet spy, Jack Soble. The two use different spellings of their name. The government charged Soblen with trying to pass defense secrets to the Soviet Union.

In New Orleans there were scuffles at schools as integrationists fought with anti-integrationists. And in Austin a bomb went off outside a building where the University of Texas Religious Council was discussing the integration of campus restaurants.

November 28, 1960: British - Soviet Confrontation at the UN

At the United Nations, the British Minister of State "denounced Soviet colonialism ... and said that the Russians were 'the greatest oppressors of our day,' according to a story prepared for publication tomorrow in the New York Times. "Replying to a Soviet demand that the General Assembly call for independence 'forthwith' for all colonies and trust territories, Mr. Orsby-Gore contrasted the Soviet Union's record with Britain's granting of independence to 500,000,000 people in former subject territories since 1939. Valerian Z. Zorin, chairman of the Soviet delegation, and other Soviet-bloc delegates shouted and beat on their desks in protest against the British counter-attack."

In Caracas, Venezuela, "President Romulo Betancourt suspended constitutional guarantees throughout Venezuela today and called out the army to maintain order," according to a story prepared for tomorrow's New York Times. "Senor Betancourt said that violence was being instigated by extremist elements that wish to overthrow his government and 'establish a regime here like that of Cuba.'"

In Havana "Premier Fidel Castro expressed the hope ... that President-elect John Kennedy would decide that the Eisenhower policy toward Cuba must be changed. He predicted that if the United States attacked the island it would mean 'suicide for Yankee imperialism,'" according to a story for tomorrow's edition of the New York Times.